Donor Antibodies Given Intravenously May Treat ANCA Vasculitis, Early Study Reports

Donor Antibodies Given Intravenously May Treat ANCA Vasculitis, Early Study Reports
0
(0)

Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy – which essentially consists on pooled antibodies from a thousand or more blood donors – could be a promising way of treating MPO-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis patients, an early study suggests.

In a rat model of the disease, this therapy lowered the number of anti-MPO antibodies, reduced neutrophil traps – web-like structures of DNA produced by activated neutrophils – and suppressed the development of vasculitic lesions, the researchers found.

The study, “Pharmaceutical immunoglobulins reduce neutrophil extracellular trap formation and ameliorate the development of MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis,” was published in Modern Rheumatology.

ANCA-associated vasculitis, an autoimmune disease, is caused by the production of autoantibodies — antibodies that wrongly target and attack healthy cells — leading to blood vessel inflammation and swelling in affected tissues and organs.

Specifically, these autoantibodies target immune cells called neutrophils, attacking one of two proteins at their surface: proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO).

Intravenous immunoglobulins, a treatment where antibodies (immunoglobulins) from healthy donors are injected into patients with immune disorders, has been proven useful against autoimmune diseases, including in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Indeed, its’ know to effectively treat peripheral neuropathy in people with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where ANCAs target the MPO protein. But how it works here — its mechanism of action — is not clear.

Researchers in Japan investigated how intravenous immunoglobulins affect the progression of MPO-positive vasculitis by studying neutrophils cultured in the lab and a rat model for the disease.

They noted that neutrophils treated with intravenous immunoglobulins produced fewer neutrophil traps. These traps are web-like structures of DNA formed by neutrophils; the structures capture and kill different microorganisms to protect the body. In excess, however their formation has been linked to progression in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Experiments performed on rats showed that intravenous immunoglobulins regulated neutrophil trap formation, preventing its excess; lessened the amounts of anti-MPO antibodies produced, or autoantibodies; and prevented the formation of lesions in the small blood vessels.

“The collective findings indicated that [intravenous immunoglobulins] reduce [neutrophil trap] formation and ameliorates the development of MPO-[ANCA-associated vasculitis]. It is expected that future prospective clinical studies will prove the efficacy of [intravenous immunoglobulin] therapy as one therapeutic option for treating patients with MPO-[ANCA-associated vasculitis],” the researchers concluded.

Further studies should also determine the mechanism by which intravenous immunoglobulins control the formation of neutrophil traps, they suggested.

Alejandra has a PhD in Genetics from São Paulo State University (UNESP) and is currently working as a scientific writer, editor, and translator. As a writer for BioNews, she is fulfilling her passion for making scientific data easily available and understandable to the general public. Aside from her work with BioNews, she also works as a language editor for non-English speaking authors and is an author of science books for kids.
×
Alejandra has a PhD in Genetics from São Paulo State University (UNESP) and is currently working as a scientific writer, editor, and translator. As a writer for BioNews, she is fulfilling her passion for making scientific data easily available and understandable to the general public. Aside from her work with BioNews, she also works as a language editor for non-English speaking authors and is an author of science books for kids.
Latest Posts
  • bleeding in lungs
  • methylprednisolone study
  • GPA hospitalizations in US
  • acute sinusitis

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

Average rating 0 / 5. Vote count: 0

No votes so far! Be the first to rate this post.

As you found this post useful...

Follow us on social media!

We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!

Let us improve this post!

Tell us how we can improve this post?